Bibliography Database Series on Religious Life in Indonesia: The Issues Around House of Worship

Problems Relating to Places of Worship in Indonesia Series of Bibliographic Database on Religious Life in Indonesia Places of worship in Indonesia are not only spaces for worship and conducting religious and social activities, but also symbols of the interaction between religious groups and their acceptance and rejection from their surrounding environments. In most cases places of worship of different religions coexist side by side and some even share use of a single wall; but sometimes the establishment and existence of places of worship bring about controversy.

Among the religious buildings adjoining each other, to name a few, in Malang, East Java, Jami’ mosque in the city of Malang is adjacent to the GPIB church. There is also Perbandhak Gurdwara, a Sikh house of worship, located right next to the Shri Mariamman Hindu temple on Jl. Tengku Umar in Medan. And in the city of Banten the Grand Mosque is adjacent to the Catholic Church. Also related to this interesting latter example, the main wall of the GKJ church literally adjoins the Al-Hikmah mosque in Joyodiningratan Surakarta, Central Java.

Among some of the examples, in 2009 in Fakfak district, West Papua, the residents of Urat Village celebrated the commencement of construction of the Shollaturrahim mosque. Construction of the mosque did not appear at all exclusive, but rather in fact reflected the villagers’ sense of togetherness. On June 6, 2009 village residents feasted merrily with traditional dances after the laying of the mosque foundations. Mothers, fathers, and teenagers danced to the tifa drum and flute. In the district of West Papua, government officials were also at ease visiting from one place of worship to another of differing religions. On June 11, 2009 the Vice Governor of West Papua visited mosques and churches on the same day. And this occurred not only at the executive level: as part of social activities, ranks of the Sorong Military Command 171/PVP in the Indonesian National Armed Forces performed devotional services with communities in the construction of Getsamani church in Sorong. Thus far we can see that processes of inter-religious cohesion remain strong at the community level. The government often actively encourages the efforts of inter-religious cooperation in the community. The state of harmonious interfaith relations and cooperation between religious communities may still be seen as a mirror of the general situation in Indonesia.

Nevertheless, undeniably conflict and even violence related to places of worship still occurred in several places. In terms of regions, areas in western Java (DKI Jakarta and West Java) need special attention because quite a number of problems have arisen there. There are various kinds of problems in relation to houses of worship, such as the absence of the permit to build a place of worship, the illegitimate occupation of public facilities for the purpose of holding religious services, as well as the opposition to the existence of certain places of worship by neighboring inhabitants. In 2008, CRCS’s Annual Report on Religious Life in Indonesia found 12 cases related to places of worship; in 2009, that number had risen to 19; andin 2010, that number has increased significantly to more than its double. Such statistics illustrate how cases involving houses of worship in Indonesia are still a problem that must be taken seriously by various parties.

(excerpted from CRCS’s 2009 Annual Report on Religious Life in Indonesia)

 

NEWSPAPERS/MAGAZINES

The Problem Houses of Worship 1945

  • “Daftar Gereja Yang Ditutup, Dirusak, dan Penghambatan Beribadah Periode 1945 dan Seterusnya,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI) …. full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2001

  • “Gereja Babtis Tegal Diancam Massa,” Eskol-Net, 9 April 2001… full text
  • “GKI Gembrong Dirusak dan Dijarah Massa,” Eskol-Net, 25 April 2001… full text
  • “GKO Kedurus Surabaya Diserbu Massa,” Eskol-Net, 25 April 2001… full text
  • “Data Akibat Aksi Massa di Pasuruan – Jatim,” Eskol-Net, 29Mei 2001… full text
  • “Data Terbaru Pemboman Gereja di Jakarta,” Eskol-Net, 21Juli 2001… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2002

  • “Surat Kesepakatan Bersama Mengenai Tempat Peribadatan di Kec. Lemahabang, Bekasi,” Eskol-Net, 14 Februari 2002…full text
  • “Kronologis Pencabutan Ijin Ibadah serta Keprihatinan Jemaat GKI Blimbing Malang,” Eskol-Net, 23Juli 2002… full text
  • “Kronologis Penyegelan 4 (empat) Gereja di Cikarang Baru, Bekasi,” Eskol-Net, 21Juli 2002… full text
  • “2 (dua) Gereja di Cikarang Barat Disegel,” Eskol-Net, 6 September 2002… full text
  • “17 Gereja di Kab. Aceh Singkil Ditutup,” Eskol-Net, 19 September 2002… full text
  • “Bom Meledak di Depan Gereja (Palu),” Eskol-Net, 19 September 2002… full text
  • “Gereja HKBP Bale Endah (Bandung) Diserang Massa,” Eskol-Net, 6 November 2002… full text
  • “Penutupan Gereja HKBP Baleendah, Bandung,” Eskol-Net, 18 Desember 2002… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2003

  •  “Peristiwa Pembakaran GKPI Pos PI Tanjung Sari, Kab. Sumedang,” Eskol-Net, 19 Maret 2003… full text
  • “Periode Juni – Awal September 2003 : 2 Gereja Ditutup dan 1 Dibakar,” Eskol-Net, 8 September 2003… full text
  • “GBI cabang Desa Pucung, Kab.Gresik Terancam Ditutup,” Eskol-Net, 31 Oktober 2003… full text
  • “HKBP Baleendah Bandung Diresolusi Massa,” Eskol-Net, 7November 2003… full text
  • “GKIN Sambeng- Malang Diresolusi,” Eskol-Net, 9 November 2003… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2004

  •  “Daftar Gereja Yang Ditutup, Dirusak, dan Penghambatan Beribadah Periode 2004,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI), 2004… full text
  • “Awal Tahun Kelabu: GPdI Purwadadi, Kab. Subang Jawa Barat Di Serbu Massa,” Eskol-Net, 5 Januari 2004… full text
  • “Peristiwa Perusakan GPIB Imanuel Bekasi,” Eskol-Net, 13 Januari 2004… full text
  • “Pelarangan Ibadah Gereja Bala Keselamatan di Kabupaten Bandung,” Eskol-Net, 25 Februari 2004…full text
  • “FPI Membubarkan Jemaat HKBP,” Eskol-Net, 7April 2004… full text“GPdI Pondok Maharta, Cileduk-Tangerang, Terancam Ditutup,” Eskol-Net, 19 April 2004… full text
  • “4 Gereja Dirusak, Pendeta Dianiaya di Tangerang,” Eskol-Net, 7 Juni 2004… full text
  • “Peristiwa Perusakan Gereja di Banten dan Bekasi,” Eskol-Net, 8 Juni 2004…full text
  • “GPDI Ciparay Kab.Bandung Diminta Menghentikan Kebaktian,” Eskol-Net, 14 Juli 2004… full text
  • “12 Gereja di Rancaekek, Kab. Bandung Akhirnya Ditutup,” Eskol-Net, 9 September 2004… full text
  • “Pengaduan Penutupan Paroki St. Bernadet Ciledug,” Eskol-Net, 7 Oktober 2004… full text
  • “Kasus Penutupan Gereja dan Sekolah Sang Timur,” Eskol-Net, 8 Oktober 2004… full text
  • “Warga Rusak Rumah Ibadah,” Eskol-Net, 26 Oktober 2004… full text
  • “Kronologis Pengrusakan GKIN Jemaat Hosiana Puri Kosambi, Karawang,” Eskol-Net, 29 Oktober 2004… full text
  • “Surat kepada Bupati Mengenai Penutupan 12 Gereja di Rancaekek,” Eskol-Net, 1 November 2004… full text
  • “Gereja Isa Alamasih (GIA) Kopo Indah Diminta Menghentikan Kegiatan,” Eskol-Net, 11 November 2004… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2005

  •  “Daftar Gereja Yang Ditutup, Dirusak, dan Penghambatan Beribadah Periode 2005,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI), 2005… full text
  • “3 (tiga) Gereja Dipaksa Hentikan Ibadah,” Eskol-Net, 12 Januari 2005… full text
  • “Penutupan GPII Sidang Penuaian Ds. Sekarawangi, Kab. Bandung,” Eskol-Net, 7 Februari 2005… full text
  • “Penutupan Gereja Kristen Pasundan (GKP) Cisewu,” Eskol-Net, 29 April 2005… full text
  • “Penutupan GSJA dan HKBP Perum Gading Tutukan Soreang, Kab Bandung,” Eskol-Net, 20 Juli 2005… full text
  • “6 (enam) Gereja di Kompleks Perumahan Permata Cimahi Ditutup,” Eskol-Net, 1 Agustus 2005… full text“Di Semarang, Sebuah Rumah Ibadah Dibongkar Paksa,” Eskol-Net, 1 Agustus 2005… full text
  • “Penutupan Gereja Kristen Pasundan (GKP) di Katapang Kab.Bandung,” Eskol-Net, 3 Agustus 2005… full text
  • “Rentetan Peristiwa Penutupan Gereja di Jawa Barat,” Eskol-Net, 15 Agustus 2005… full text
  • “News Update-Indonesia,” thepersecution.org, 21 Agustus 2005… full text
  • “Kronologis Penutupan Gereja Kristen Pasundan (Gkp) Dayeuhkolot Kabupaten Bandung,” Eskol-Net, 24 Agustus 2005…full text
  • “Gereja Katolik (Stasi) Kompleks Perum Margahayu Raya Bandung, Di Tutup Massa AGAP,” Eskol-Net, 27 Agustus 2005…full text
  • “Secarik Kertas, Beragam Soal,” Majalah Tempo, 5 September 2005… full text
  • “Sebatang Salib yang Dikunci,” Majalah Tempo, 5 September 2005… full text
  • “Tak Sekadar Mengubah,” Majalah Tempo, 5 September 2005… full text
  • “GKI Graha Satelit Kab.Gowa, Sulsel Diminta untuk Ditutup,” Eskol-Net, 9 September 2005… full text
  • “Massa Tutup ‘Gereja’ di Solo – Polisi menyetujui keinginan massa,” Eskol-Net, 9 September 2005… full text
  • “Rebutan Umat Ibadah Dihambat,” Majalah Gatra 48 / XI, 15 Oktober 2005… full text
  • “Pernyataan Sikap dan Seruan AGAP (Aliansi Gerakan Anti Pemurtadan),” Eskol-Net, 16 September 2005… full text
  • “Kronologis Penutupan Gspdi Katapang, Kab. Bandung,” Eskol-Net, 5 Oktober 2005… full text
  • “GMAHK Parompong, Lembang Terancam Ditutup,” Eskol-Net, 29 Oktober 2005… full text 
  • “2 (dua) Rumah Ibadah di Jawa Barat di Segel Massa,” Eskol-Net, 27November 2005… full text
  • “Revisi SKB DikhawatirkanTetap Timbulkan Konflik Antaragama,” Eskol-Net, 9 Desember 2005… full text
  • “Penutupan Gereja Sungai Yordan Rengasdengklok dan GBIS Okumene Bandung,” Eskol-Net, 23 Desember 2005… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2006

  •  “Berbagai Peristiwa Penutupan Gereja Medio Nopember 2005 hingga Maret 2006,” Eskol-Net, 31 Maret 2006… full text
  • “Lagi-lagi Gereja Ditutup; Kapan Berhentinya???,” Eskol-Net, 1 April 2006… full text
  • “DPR Dukung Upaya Hukum Gugat SPB 2 Menteri,” Eskol-Net, 5 April 2006… full text
  • “Warga Segel Dua Gereja,” Eskol-Net, 23 April 2006… full text
  • “Daftar Gereja Yang Ditutup, Dirusak, dan Penghambatan Beribadah Periode 2006,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI), 2006… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2007

  •  “Daftar Gereja Yang Ditutup, Dirusak, dan Penghambatan Beribadah Periode 2007,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI), 2007… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2008

  •  “Daftar Gereja Yang Ditutup, Dirusak, dan Penghambatan Beribadah Periode 2008,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI), 2008… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2009

  •  “Daftar Gereja Yang Ditutup, Dirusak, dan Penghambatan Beribadah Periode 2009,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI), 2009… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2010

  •  “Daftar Gereja Yang Ditutup, Dirusak, dan Penghambatan Beribadah Periode 2010,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI), 2010… full text
  • “Tak Sekadar Mengubah,” Majalah Tempo, 5 September 2005… full text

The Problem Houses of Worship  2011

  • “Daftar Gereja Yang Ditutup, Dirusak, dan Penghambatan Beribadah Periode 2011,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI), 2011… full text
  • “Ikhtiar Panjang Mencabut SKB,” Majalah Gatra50 / XVII, 26 Oktober 2011… full text
  • “Aktivitas Dilarang, Masjid Dibuka,” Majalah Gatra 18 / XVII, 16 Maret 2011… full text
  • “Freedom of religion and Islam in Indonesia,” The Jakarta Post, 19 Februari 2011… full text
  • “Mobilization of students against church project raises objections,” The Jakarta Post, 2 Februari 2011… full text
  • “Lima Masjid Dibakar di Medan, FUI Sumatera Utara Datangi Komnas HAM,” VOA-Islam, 13 April 2011… full text
  • “Setara Sesalkan Walikota Kupang Larang Bangun Masjid,” KBR68H, 11Agustus 2011… full text
  • “Kemenag: Kasus Penghentian Pembangunan Masjid di Kupang Urusan Pemda,” KBR68H, 12 Agustus 2011… full text
  • “Permasalahan Pembangunan Gereja GKI Taman Yasmin Kota Bogor,” Pemerintah Kota Bogor, 18 Oktober 2011… full text
  • “Kronologi Gereja Kristen Indonesia Bakal Pos Taman Yasmin Bogor,” Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia (PGI), 23 September 2011… full text

BOOKS/ARTICLES

  •  Jacob Elvinus Sahetapy, Paul Tahalele, Thomas Santoso, Beginikah kemerdekaan kita?, Surabaya: Forum Komunikasi Kristiani Indonesia, 1997… full text
  • Gomar Gultom, Seputar Ijin Mendirikan Rumah Ibadah : dari SKB ke PBM : Disertai Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 Setelah Amandemen Pertama s/d Keempat, Jakarta : Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia, 2006… full text
  • Herlianto,Gereja di tengah gejolak kota-kota : sesudah Surabaya, Situbondo & Tasikmalaya, lalu–?, Bandung: Yabina, 1997… full text
  • Melissa Crouch, Implementing the Regulation on Places of Worship in Indonesia: New Problems, Local Politics and Court Action, London: Taylor & Francis… full text
  • Melissa Crouch, Regulating Places of Worship in Indonesia: Upholding Freedom of Religion for Religious Minorities, Singapura: Singapore Journal of Legal Studies, 2007… full text
  • Siti Aminah, Uli Parulian Sihombing, Buku Saku untuk Kebebasan Beragama: Memahami Kebijakan Rumah Ibadah, Jakarta: The Indonesian Legal Resource Center (ILRC) Freedom House, 2010… full text
  • Ismail Hasani, et al, Radikalisme Agama di Jabodetabek & Jawa Barat; Implikasinya terhadap Jaminan Kebebasan Beragama/ Berkeyakinan, Publikasi SETARA Institute, Desember 2011… full text
  • Theodor Kampschulte, Situasi HAM di Indonesia: Kebebasan Beragama dan Aksi Kekerasan, Aachen, Jerman: Missio (Internationales Katholisches Missionswerk e.V.), 2001, hlm. 9-11… full text
  • Akhol Firdaus, et al, Negara Menyangkal; Kondisi Kebebasan Beragama/berkeyakinan di Indonesia 2010, ed. Ismail Hasani, Bonar Tigor Naipospos, Jakarta: Pustaka Masyarakat Setara, 2010, hlm. 61-85… full text (12)
  • Syafiq Hasyim, Pandangan umat Islam terhadap kekristenan : studi penelitian peristiwa pembakaran gereja di Situbondo : laporan penelitian, Jakarta: LAKPESDAM NU, 1998… full text
  • Articles in Freedom of Religion or Belief News – Indonesia 2009, Brussels, Belgium: Human Rights Without Frontiers International… full text
  • Articles in Freedom of Religion or Belief News – Indonesia 2010, Brussels, Belgium: Human Rights Without Frontiers International… full text
  • Victor Raqual, “Light sentences for attack on Christians in Indonesia condemned;” Victor Raqual, “Police, Islamists put up obstacles to worship,” Freedom of Religion or Belief News – Indonesia 2011, Brussels, Belgium: Human Rights Without Frontiers International… full text

ANNUAL REPORT

  •  Meningkatkan Intoleransi Beragama Masyarakat Indonesia, Kajian Bulanan Edisi No.23, Jakarta: Lingkaran Survei Indonesia, Oktober 2010… full text
  • ATAS NAMA KETERTIBAN & KEAMANAN, Persekusi Ahmadiyah di Bogor, Garut, Tasikmalaya, dan Kuningan, Jakarta: SETARA Institute, 9 Agustus 2010, hlm. 6-13… full text
  • Ekspektasi yang Sirna; Laporan Penegakan Hak Asasi Manusia Tahun 2005, Jakarta: Lembaga Studi & Advokasi Masyarakat (ELSAM), 2005, hlm. 6-13… full text
  • Laporan Akhir Tahun 2009, Toleransi dan Intoleransi di Indonesia, Moderate Muslim Society, 2010… full text
  • Laporan Toleransi dan Intoleransi Tahun 2010; Ketika Negara Membiarkan Intoleransi, Moderate Muslim Society, 2011…full text
  • Negara Harus Bersikap; Tiga Tahun Laporan Kondisi Kebebasan Beragama/ Berkeyakinan di Indonesia 2007-2009, Jakarta: Setara Institute… full text
  • Matrik Peristiwa Laporan Tematik Pelanggaran Kebebasan Beragama/ Berkeyakinan Terkait Pendirian Rumah Ibadah & Hak Beribadah Periode Januari-Juli 2010, Jakarta: Setara Institute, 2010… full text
  • Di Mana Tempat Kami Beribadah? Review Tematik Pelanggaran Kebebasan Beragama/Berkeyakinan tentang Rumah Ibadah & Hak Beribadah, January-July 2010, Jakarta:Setara Institute… full text
  • Data Kekerasan Atas Nama Agama Pasca Pemilu Presiden 2004, The Wahid Institute… full textMonthly Report on Religious Issues, 13th edition, Jakarta: The Wahid Institute, Agustus 2008, hlm. 6-8; 14-16… full text
  • Monthly Report on Religious Issues, 25th edition, Jakarta: The Wahid Institute, Desember 2009, hlm. 5… full text
  • Monthly Report on Religious Issues, 26th edition, Jakarta: The Wahid Institute, January 2010, hlm. 4-6… full text
  • Monthly Report on Religious Issues, 28th edition, Jakarta: The Wahid Institute, March 2010, hlm. 3-5… full text
  • Monthly Report on Religious Issues, 32nd edition, Jakarta: The Wahid Institute, April 2011, hlm. 2-5… full text
  • Monthly Report on Religious Issues, 35th edition, Jakarta: The Wahid Institute, August 2011, hlm. 8-12… full text
  • Tindakan Kekerasan oleh Kelompok Vigilante 2001-2010, Jakarta: Komisi Untuk Orang Hilang dan Korban Tindak Kekerasan (Kontras), Juni 2010… full text
  • Tren HAM Kontras No. 04 /VII-VIII/2010, Jakarta: Komisi Untuk Orang Hilang dan Korban Tindak Kekerasan (Kontras), Juli-Agustus 2010, hlm. 7-10… full text
  • Indonesia: Piecemeal approaches to systemic and institutionalised discrimination, New Delhi, India: Asian Indigenous & Tribal People’s Network, 2007, hlm. 26-27… full text

THESES

  • Thomas Santoso, Kekerasan Politik-Agama: Suatu Studi Konstruksi Sosial Tentang Perusakan Gereja Di Situbondo, 1996,Disertasi, Surabaya: Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Airlangga, 2002… full text
  • Sholihan and Muhammad Sulthon, Political Dimension in Religious Conflict in Indonesia; Case Study on the Set up of Gereja Pantekosta in Indonesia (GPdI) Jamaat Hosana Ngalian Semarang, Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education (NUFFIC) and Walisongo Mediation Centre (WMC), 2008… full text
  • Indra Wardhana, Pembingkaian Berita Kerusuhan Warga Dengan Jamaah Ahmadiyah Di Pandeglang, Banten, Skripsi, Surabaya: Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, UPN Veteran Jawa Timur, 2011… full text

REGULATIONS

  • Peraturan Bersama Menteri Agama dan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 9 Tahun 2006 dan Nomor : 8 Tahun 2006 Tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Tugas Kepala Daerah/Wakil Kepala Daerah dalam Pemeliharaan Kerukunan Umat Beragama, Pemberdayaan Forum Kerukunan Umat Beragama, dan Pendirian Rumah Ibadat… full text
  • Putusan MA nomor 127 PK/TUN/2009 tanggal 9 Desember 2010 tentang penolakan Mahkamah Agung terhadap Peninjauan Kembali (PK) yang diajukan Pemkot Bogor berkait dengan Izin Mendirikan Bangunan (IMB) Gereja GKI Yasmin Bogor… full text
  • Rekomendasi Ombudsman RI nomor 0011/REK/0259.2010/BS-15/VII/2011 tanggal 8 Juli 2011 tentang pencabutan keputusan Wali Kota Bogor tentang IMB GKI Yasmin… full text

Press Releases/Letters

  • Daftar Pelarangan Beribadah dan Penutupan Rumah Ibadah Selama 2008, Bidang Diakonia Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia, 2008… full text
  • Pdt. Petrus Giyoto, Kronologis Gereja Penyebaran Injil Rajawali Masaran Kulon RT 3/RW 2, Desa Jati Kecamatan Masaran – Sragen (130 Jemaat), Komisi Untuk Orang Hilang dan Korban Tindak Kekerasan (Kontras), 2007… full text
  • Pdm. Fatizanolo Waruwu, S.Th, Kronologis Gereja Jemaat Kristen Indonesia “Kristus Gembala” Jl. Yos Sudarso No. 367, Dawung Wetan Surakarta (67 jemaat), Komisi Untuk Orang Hilang dan Korban Tindak Kekerasan (Kontras),18 Juni 2007…full text
  • Pdt. Gomar Gultom, Mengamati Penutupan Tempat-tempat Ibadah Sepanjang 2004-2007, Persekutuan Gereja-Gereja di Indonesia, November 2007… full text
  • Menyambut Laporan Ombudsman Republik Indonesia 12 Oktober 2011; ”Walikota Bogor, Gubernur Jabar, Presiden dan DPR, Tegakkanlah Pancasila, UUD 1945 dan Bhinneka Tunggal Ika; Biarkanlah Kami Beribadah dengan Damai”, Majelis JemaatGereja Kristen Indonesia, 14 Oktober2011… full text
  • Mln. Zafrullah Ahmad Pontoh, Sy, Press Release Jemaat Ahmadiyah Mengenai Penutupan Masjid-Masjid Ahmadiyah di Desa Manis Lor, Kuningan, Jemaat Ahmadiyah Indonesia, 5 Agustus 2010… full text
  • Open Letter on Human Rights Violations against the Ahmadiyya in West Java, Amnesti International, 14 Oktober 2011…full text

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