This study looks at the practice and discourse of pluralism in contemporary Indonesia. The time period covered here is from 1998 until end of 2007, which is marked by, among other things, two significant events: the Reformasi of May 1998 in the specifically Indonesian context, and the 9/11 attacks in the US as the main global context. The main issues of the study are practice and discourse of pluralism. The practice is covered by two components: a portrait of Indonesian Muslims in terms of their views and attitude toward the others, by reviewing empirical surveys; and a review of governmental policies with regard to religion, especially freedom of religion. The discourse component is shown in the features exhibited in the discourse by the supporters and opponents of the idea, based on their writings in newspapers, magazines, journals, and books. The practice and discourse of pluralism is translated here as about views and attitudes of a religious community (or persons) toward the religious others. The focus is here is on Muslims.